Ice Core Analyses

Six ice cores were transported frozen to the cold rooms at The Ohio State University (OSU) where the entire lengths of five cores were cut into a continuous sequence of samples (NIF2, 2197 samples; NIF3, 1980 samples; SIF1, 706 samples; SIF2, 834 samples; FWG, 343 samples).

The figure (left) shows the 11.7 ka Kilimanjaro record of dust concentration and δ18O along with other key climate histories in the region. See the key paper for detailed discussion. These cores were were analyzed for oxygen and hydrogen isotopic ratios (δ18O, δD), concentrations of insoluble microparticles (dust), major anions (fluoride, chloride, nitrate and sulfate) and major cations (sodium, ammonium, potassium, magnesium and calcium). NIF1 (drilled one meter from NIF2) has been reserved for other measurements including AMS 14C and pollen. The large dust visible dust layer (far left photo) occurs at ~4,200 years B.P. (highlighted in the figire) and represents a nearly 300 year long drought in the region.